Create TensorFlow wide-and-deep model

This notebook illustrates:

  1. Creating a model using the high-level Estimator API
In [1]:
# change these to try this notebook out
BUCKET = 'tensorflow-20200504-003709'
PROJECT = 'your_project_name'
REGION = 'us-central1'
In [2]:
import os
os.environ['BUCKET'] = BUCKET
os.environ['PROJECT'] = PROJECT
os.environ['REGION'] = REGION
In [3]:
if ! gsutil ls | grep -q gs://${BUCKET}/; then
  gsutil mb -l ${REGION} gs://${BUCKET}
In [4]:
ls *.csv

Create TensorFlow model using TensorFlow's Estimator API

First, write an input_fn to read the data.

In [5]:
import shutil
import numpy as np
import tensorflow as tf
In [6]:
# Determine CSV, label, and key columns
CSV_COLUMNS = 'weight_pounds,is_male,mother_age,plurality,gestation_weeks,key'.split(',')
LABEL_COLUMN = 'weight_pounds'
KEY_COLUMN = 'key'

# Set default values for each CSV column
DEFAULTS = [[0.0], ['null'], [0.0], ['null'], [0.0], ['nokey']]
In [7]:
# Create an input function reading a file using the Dataset API
# Then provide the results to the Estimator API
def read_dataset(filename, mode, batch_size = 512):
  def _input_fn():
    def decode_csv(value_column):
      columns = tf.decode_csv(value_column, record_defaults=DEFAULTS)
      features = dict(zip(CSV_COLUMNS, columns))
      label = features.pop(LABEL_COLUMN)
      return features, label
    # Create list of files that match pattern
    file_list = tf.gfile.Glob(filename)

    # Create dataset from file list
    dataset = (  # Read text file
                 .map(decode_csv))  # Transform each elem by applying decode_csv fn
    if mode == tf.estimator.ModeKeys.TRAIN:
        num_epochs = None # indefinitely
        dataset = dataset.shuffle(buffer_size=10*batch_size)
        num_epochs = 1 # end-of-input after this
    dataset = dataset.repeat(num_epochs).batch(batch_size)
    return dataset
  return _input_fn

Next, define the feature columns

In [8]:
# Define feature columns
def get_wide_deep():
  # Define column types
  is_male,mother_age,plurality,gestation_weeks = \
                      ['True', 'False', 'Unknown']),
                      ['Single(1)', 'Twins(2)', 'Triplets(3)',
                       'Quadruplets(4)', 'Quintuplets(5)','Multiple(2+)']),

  # Discretize
  age_buckets = tf.feature_column.bucketized_column(mother_age, 
  gestation_buckets = tf.feature_column.bucketized_column(gestation_weeks, 

  # Sparse columns are wide, have a linear relationship with the output
  wide = [is_male,

  # Feature cross all the wide columns and embed into a lower dimension
  crossed = tf.feature_column.crossed_column(wide, hash_bucket_size=20000)
  embed = tf.feature_column.embedding_column(crossed, 3)

  # Continuous columns are deep, have a complex relationship with the output
  deep = [mother_age,
  return wide, deep

To predict with the TensorFlow model, we also need a serving input function. We will want all the inputs from our user.

In [9]:
# Create serving input function to be able to serve predictions later using provided inputs
def serving_input_fn():
    feature_placeholders = {
        'is_male': tf.placeholder(tf.string, [None]),
        'mother_age': tf.placeholder(tf.float32, [None]),
        'plurality': tf.placeholder(tf.string, [None]),
        'gestation_weeks': tf.placeholder(tf.float32, [None])
    features = {
        key: tf.expand_dims(tensor, -1)
        for key, tensor in feature_placeholders.items()
    return tf.estimator.export.ServingInputReceiver(features, feature_placeholders)
In [10]:
# Create estimator to train and evaluate
def train_and_evaluate(output_dir):
  wide, deep = get_wide_deep()
  run_config = tf.estimator.RunConfig(save_checkpoints_secs = EVAL_INTERVAL,
                                      keep_checkpoint_max = 3)
  estimator = tf.estimator.DNNLinearCombinedRegressor(
                       model_dir = output_dir,
                       linear_feature_columns = wide,
                       dnn_feature_columns = deep,
                       dnn_hidden_units = [64, 32],
                       config = run_config)
  train_spec = tf.estimator.TrainSpec(
                       input_fn = read_dataset('train.csv', mode = tf.estimator.ModeKeys.TRAIN),
                       max_steps = TRAIN_STEPS)
  exporter = tf.estimator.LatestExporter('exporter', serving_input_fn)
  eval_spec = tf.estimator.EvalSpec(
                       input_fn = read_dataset('eval.csv', mode = tf.estimator.ModeKeys.EVAL),
                       steps = None,
                       start_delay_secs = 60, # start evaluating after N seconds
                       throttle_secs = EVAL_INTERVAL,  # evaluate every N seconds
                       exporters = exporter)
  tf.estimator.train_and_evaluate(estimator, train_spec, eval_spec)

Finally, train!

In [11]:
# Run the model
shutil.rmtree('babyweight_trained', ignore_errors = True) # start fresh each time
tf.summary.FileWriterCache.clear() # ensure filewriter cache is clear for TensorBoard events file
INFO:tensorflow:Using config: {'_model_dir': 'babyweight_trained', '_tf_random_seed': None, '_save_summary_steps': 100, '_save_checkpoints_steps': None, '_save_checkpoints_secs': 300, '_session_config': allow_soft_placement: true
graph_options {
  rewrite_options {
    meta_optimizer_iterations: ONE
, '_keep_checkpoint_max': 3, '_keep_checkpoint_every_n_hours': 10000, '_log_step_count_steps': 100, '_train_distribute': None, '_device_fn': None, '_protocol': None, '_eval_distribute': None, '_experimental_distribute': None, '_experimental_max_worker_delay_secs': None, '_session_creation_timeout_secs': 7200, '_service': None, '_cluster_spec': < object at 0x7fbfc2e96810>, '_task_type': 'worker', '_task_id': 0, '_global_id_in_cluster': 0, '_master': '', '_evaluation_master': '', '_is_chief': True, '_num_ps_replicas': 0, '_num_worker_replicas': 1}
INFO:tensorflow:Not using Distribute Coordinator.
INFO:tensorflow:Running training and evaluation locally (non-distributed).
INFO:tensorflow:Start train and evaluate loop. The evaluate will happen after every checkpoint. Checkpoint frequency is determined based on RunConfig arguments: save_checkpoints_steps None or save_checkpoints_secs 300.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /opt/conda/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow_core/python/training/ Variable.initialized_value (from tensorflow.python.ops.variables) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use Variable.read_value. Variables in 2.X are initialized automatically both in eager and graph (inside tf.defun) contexts.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /opt/conda/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow_core/python/autograph/converters/ The name tf.decode_csv is deprecated. Please use instead.

INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /opt/conda/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow_core/python/feature_column/ CrossedColumn._num_buckets (from tensorflow.python.feature_column.feature_column_v2) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
The old _FeatureColumn APIs are being deprecated. Please use the new FeatureColumn APIs instead.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /opt/conda/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow_core/python/feature_column/ Layer.add_variable (from tensorflow.python.keras.engine.base_layer) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Please use `layer.add_weight` method instead.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /opt/conda/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow_core/python/ops/ calling BaseResourceVariable.__init__ (from tensorflow.python.ops.resource_variable_ops) with constraint is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
If using Keras pass *_constraint arguments to layers.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /opt/conda/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow_core/python/ops/ where (from tensorflow.python.ops.array_ops) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use tf.where in 2.0, which has the same broadcast rule as np.where
WARNING:tensorflow:From /opt/conda/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow_estimator/python/estimator/canned/ to_float (from tensorflow.python.ops.math_ops) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use `tf.cast` instead.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /opt/conda/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow_core/python/training/ calling Constant.__init__ (from tensorflow.python.ops.init_ops) with dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Call initializer instance with the dtype argument instead of passing it to the constructor
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Create CheckpointSaverHook.
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 0 into babyweight_trained/model.ckpt.
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 74211.766, step = 1
INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 21.9373
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 1031.871, step = 101 (4.564 sec)
INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 28.8401
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 835.1702, step = 201 (3.463 sec)
INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 30.3401
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 820.8525, step = 301 (3.296 sec)
INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 30.5414
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 742.4574, step = 401 (3.274 sec)
INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 28.4951
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 636.03735, step = 501 (3.511 sec)
INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 29.9706
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 687.82104, step = 601 (3.334 sec)
INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 28.3279
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 627.9653, step = 701 (3.535 sec)
INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 30.3581
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 698.1687, step = 801 (3.290 sec)
INFO:tensorflow:global_step/sec: 30.979
INFO:tensorflow:loss = 655.5096, step = 901 (3.230 sec)
INFO:tensorflow:Saving checkpoints for 1000 into babyweight_trained/model.ckpt.
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Starting evaluation at 2020-05-03T15:56:35Z
INFO:tensorflow:Graph was finalized.
INFO:tensorflow:Restoring parameters from babyweight_trained/model.ckpt-1000
INFO:tensorflow:Running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Done running local_init_op.
INFO:tensorflow:Finished evaluation at 2020-05-03-15:56:37
INFO:tensorflow:Saving dict for global step 1000: average_loss = 1.220611, global_step = 1000, label/mean = 7.2368712, loss = 611.05664, prediction/mean = 7.2416835
INFO:tensorflow:Saving 'checkpoint_path' summary for global step 1000: babyweight_trained/model.ckpt-1000
INFO:tensorflow:Calling model_fn.
INFO:tensorflow:Done calling model_fn.
WARNING:tensorflow:From /opt/conda/lib/python3.7/site-packages/tensorflow_core/python/saved_model/ build_tensor_info (from tensorflow.python.saved_model.utils_impl) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
This function will only be available through the v1 compatibility library as tf.compat.v1.saved_model.utils.build_tensor_info or tf.compat.v1.saved_model.build_tensor_info.
INFO:tensorflow:Signatures INCLUDED in export for Classify: None
INFO:tensorflow:Signatures INCLUDED in export for Regress: None
INFO:tensorflow:Signatures INCLUDED in export for Predict: ['predict']
INFO:tensorflow:Signatures INCLUDED in export for Train: None
INFO:tensorflow:Signatures INCLUDED in export for Eval: None
INFO:tensorflow:Signatures EXCLUDED from export because they cannot be be served via TensorFlow Serving APIs:
INFO:tensorflow:'serving_default' : Regression input must be a single string Tensor; got {'is_male': <tf.Tensor 'Placeholder:0' shape=(?,) dtype=string>, 'mother_age': <tf.Tensor 'Placeholder_1:0' shape=(?,) dtype=float32>, 'plurality': <tf.Tensor 'Placeholder_2:0' shape=(?,) dtype=string>, 'gestation_weeks': <tf.Tensor 'Placeholder_3:0' shape=(?,) dtype=float32>}
INFO:tensorflow:'regression' : Regression input must be a single string Tensor; got {'is_male': <tf.Tensor 'Placeholder:0' shape=(?,) dtype=string>, 'mother_age': <tf.Tensor 'Placeholder_1:0' shape=(?,) dtype=float32>, 'plurality': <tf.Tensor 'Placeholder_2:0' shape=(?,) dtype=string>, 'gestation_weeks': <tf.Tensor 'Placeholder_3:0' shape=(?,) dtype=float32>}
WARNING:tensorflow:Export includes no default signature!
INFO:tensorflow:Restoring parameters from babyweight_trained/model.ckpt-1000
INFO:tensorflow:Assets added to graph.
INFO:tensorflow:No assets to write.
INFO:tensorflow:SavedModel written to: babyweight_trained/export/exporter/temp-b'1588521397'/saved_model.pb
INFO:tensorflow:Loss for final step: 557.1326.

The exporter directory contains the final model.

Monitor and experiment with training

To begin TensorBoard from within AI Platform Notebooks, click the + symbol in the top left corner and select the Tensorboard icon to create a new TensorBoard.

In TensorBoard, look at the learned embeddings. Are they getting clustered? How about the weights for the hidden layers? What if you run this longer? What happens if you change the batchsize?

Copyright 2017-2018 Google Inc. Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License